Are you looking for a new electric toothbrush? You’re in the right place. In this review we are going to compare the best electric toothbrushes in the UK for 2019. You will find out more about the benefits of powered toothbrushes as we provide you accurate information about some of the top brands available in the country. In just a few minutes you’ll be better informed in your search for the best electric toothbrush for your oral hygiene needs.
But are you wondering whether you really need one to maintain good oral hygiene? Nobody looks forward to having fillings and root canals at the dentist, but with electric toothbrush models costing anywhere from £20 to £200 or more, is it really worth it?
The key to keeping your teeth clean is knowing how to brush properly and forming good habits. While this is possible with a manual toothbrush, the features available with many modern toothbrushes can be a big help, and some studies show that a powered brush is the best way to keep your teeth clean and healthy.
Oral hygiene is also important for children, so this article includes a section on the wide range of kids’ electric toothbrushes available.
|Best Electric Toothbrushes|
|Oral B Genius 9000||Check the latest price|
|Modes: 6 |
Speed: 40,000 oscillations per minute
Charge lasts: 12 days
|Philips Sonicare DiamondClean||Check the latest price|
Speed: 31,000 pulses per minute
Charge lasts: 21 days
|Colgate ProClinicalA1500||Check the latest price|
Speed: 32,500 pulses per minute
Charge lasts: 7 days
|FOREO ISSA2||Check the latest price|
Speed: 11,000 pulses per minute
Charge lasts: several months
|Best Mouthwash Options|
|Oral B Genius 9000|
|Check the latest price|
|Philips Sonicare DiamondClean|
|Check the latest price|
|Check the latest price|
|Check the latest price|
Table of contents
- 1 Why use an electric toothbrush?
- 2 Parts of an electric toothbrush
- 3 How to choose an electric toothbrush
- 4 Review of the best electric toothbrushes in the UK
- 5 Conclusion
- 6 FAQs
- 6.1 1. Can you take an electric toothbrush in hand luggage?
- 6.2 2. How do you use an electric toothbrush?
- 6.3 3. How do you clean an electric toothbrush?
- 6.4 4. Can you use an electric toothbrush with braces?
- 6.5 5. What’s the best electric toothbrush for receding gums?
- 6.6 6. What’s the best electric toothbrush for sensitive teeth?
Why use an electric toothbrush?
Let’s be clear on this from the outset: if you can’t be bothered to brush your teeth properly, it doesn’t matter how much you spend on a fancy toothbrush. You’re still likely to end up with dental problems like tooth decay or gingivitis (gum disease).
Common issues that affect oral hygiene
- Not brushing twice a day
- Not brushing for long enough (2 minutes is recommended)
- Limited dexterity which affects brushing movement
- Not focusing on cleaning each area properly
- Brushing too hard (which damages gums)
- Using toothpaste that doesn’t contain enamel-protecting fluoride
- Rinsing after brushing (which washes away the fluoride in your toothpaste)
- Not replacing your toothbrush or toothbrush head often enough
- Not cleaning between teeth with floss or an interdental interdental brush
Electric powered brushes can help with some – but not all – of these problems.
If you have arthritis or some other condition that limits your movement, you will almost certainly benefit from a toothbrush that does most of the hard work while you just hold it against each tooth. But there are other features which can help anyone brush their teeth better.
For instance, most models come with timers that tell you when your two minutes is up. They often signal every 30 seconds so you can brush each quadrant of your mouth evenly.
Pressure sensors will alert you if you’re brushing too hard and need to ease off a little. You can even get an app for your toothbrush which reminds you to brush and shows you which areas of your mouth to focus on.
Electric vs. manual
Electric or manual toothbrush? Although the quality of your oral hygiene is largely down to how you brush, not what you brush with, it seems that electric brushes do offer certain benefits.
But how is an electric toothbrush better? A study published in 2014 by health researcher Cochrane found that patients who used a powered brush experienced a 21% reduction in plaque after three months, compared with those who continued to use a manual brush. There was also an 11% reduction in gum inflammation (gingivitis) after this time.
The advice from the NHS is that it doesn’t matter what type of brush you use as long as you brush twice a day, clean every surface of each tooth, and use fluoride toothpaste. However, they also note that if you do choose an electric brush, one with a rotating or oscillating head may be more effective.
Our guide to manual toothbrushes for adults has our top picks for manual brushes, if you want to know more about those as well.
Benefits of electric toothbrushes
To summarise, any of these features may help you maintain better oral health:
- Easier access to hard-to-reach teeth
- Better brushing motion for people with limited dexterity
- A timer to make sure you’re brushing for long enough
- A pressure sensor to alert you when brushing too hard
- An app to track your progress and motivate you
- Different brush heads for cleaning braces, sensitive teeth, etc.
Parts of an electric toothbrush
Before we get into the details of choosing the right brush for you, let’s take a quick look at some of the parts of an electric toothbrush that you need to know about.
Electric toothbrush charger
A very important part of the electric toothbrush is the charger – that’s what gives it power! There are two main ways to charge a toothbrush: either with a charging cable that plugs directly into the unit (like a USB charger) or with a inductive charging base that the toothbrush connects with.
Charging time varies between models, as does the duration of the charge. Your toothbrush should feature a charging light to show when it’s fully charged.
If you lose or damage your electric toothbrush charger, it’s easy to buy a replacement online. Just be sure to buy one that fits your brand of toothbrush – they all look similar but are slightly different shapes.
Electric toothbrush plug adaptor
In the UK, it’s common for power toothbrush chargers to come with a two-pin plug. This is fine if you have a two-pin shaver socket in your bathroom, but if not you’ll need to use a plug adaptor that converts to a standard three-pin socket. Fortunately, this type of electric toothbrush adaptor is widely available.
Alternatively, you can buy a charger that’s already fitted with a three-pin plug to avoid needing that extra bit of hardware.
If you choose a USB charging toothbrush, you won’t need to worry about buying an adaptor.
Electric toothbrush heads
Electric toothbrush heads – the parts that contain the bristles – get worn out just like regular toothbrush heads. With the exception of some children’s brushes, the head can easily be removed and replaced. They often have some kind of wear indicator so you can see when it’s time to replace them, and some advanced brush models will tell you when it’s time to switch to a new one.
One benefit of changeable heads is that you don’t need to buy a different brush for each member of your family; you can simply swap the heads around depending on who is using it. Some manufacturers make different types of electric toothbrush head which suit different purposes such as cleaning with braces, brushing sensitive teeth, or teeth whitening.
Further down you will find more information about the different types of toothbrush head, including oscillating and ultrasonic.
Electric toothbrush holder
In most cases, the charger functions as a holder for the toothbrush itself. However, if you don’t keep your charger in the bathroom you may want to buy a separate electric toothbrush holder. If several family members use different heads on the same toothbrush handle, it can be especially useful to have a holder to keep all the parts clean and organised.
This Corneria toothbrush holder has enough space for a couple of tubes of toothpaste, an electric toothbrush, and up to four toothbrush heads or manual brushes. If you’re short on space, you can also buy holders that attach directly to your bathroom mirror.
How to choose an electric toothbrush
Don’t assume that a cheap electric toothbrush will do a worse job of cleaning your teeth than an expensive one. Some technology may help achieve a deeper clean, but other features are only worth paying for if you’ll actually benefit from them.
It’s important you take the time to work out which features you really need and which are just nice to have – otherwise you could end up paying well over the odds for your electric brush.
Battery-powered vs. rechargeable
The cheapest electric toothbrush you’ll find is probably a battery-powered one that takes regular AA or AAA batteries. These are essentially the same as manual brushes, but with a vibrating head. Although these may still offer some benefits over manual brushes, they don’t compare to rechargeable models in terms of the power and features they offer.
Battery-powered brushes might be a good option for kids who need some extra motivation to brush. However, if you’re looking for an electric powered toothbrush to take your oral hygiene to the next level, it’s worth investing in a rechargeable model.
Know your oscillating from your ultrasonic
When you start to research rechargeable electric toothbrushes, one of the first things you’ll notice is the variety of different heads available. Different manufacturers use different technologies in their brushes. Some promise a better clean, but independent research on this matter is limited. In the end, it may just come down to choosing the one that you find most comfortable.
Here is a quick explanation of some different terms you might come across regarding toothbrush heads:
- Rotating: The bristles turn, either as one whole circle or in individual clusters. Brush heads are usually quite small and are designed to clean one tooth at a time.
- Rotating-oscillating: Rather than spinning round and round in one direction, oscillating brushes rotate one way and then back again very quickly – as many as 8,000 times a minute.
- Counter-rotating: The head contains 6-10 tufts of bristles, each one spinning in the opposite direction to its neighbour. This style was considered revolutionary in the 90s but has since been overtaken by newer technology.
- Pulsing: The head moves back and forth against teeth to help dislodge plaque, even between teeth where the bristles can’t reach. This is often paired with rotating-oscillating heads to deliver a more thorough clean.
- Vibrating: Rather than rotating, the head moves from side to side very quickly to vibrate against teeth. These are usually shaped like ‘normal’ toothbrush heads.
- Dual-head: The head has two parts; one which oscillates and one which vibrates from side to side.
- Sonic/ultrasonic: High-speed movements create vibrations at certain frequencies which help with the breakdown of plaque. The vibrations can also push fluid between teeth to achieve interdental cleaning – this is known as a “non-contact brushing effect”.
Two of the biggest brands on the market are the Braun Oral-B and Philips Sonicare toothbrushes. In the video below you can see how these brushes make use of different technology, as well as some other things you should consider when making your choice:
Travel electric toothbrushes
If you travel frequently you may appreciate a brush with special features that make it easy to carry and use wherever you go.
Decide which of the following features you’d find useful for your travel electric toothbrush:
- A lid to cover the head to keep it clean
- A compact design
- A travel case to protect the whole brush (and prevent your toothbrush from accidentally switching on in your luggage)
- A longer-lasting battery so you don’t need to carry a charger while away
- A USB charger which is less bulky than an induction charger
- A USB charging case – a travel toothbrush case which doubles up as a charging dock
And by the way, if you’re wondering whether it’s alright to take an electric toothbrush in your hand luggage when you fly, the answer is yes. Although each country and airline has slightly differing rules on what’s allowed, an electric toothbrush should be fine to carry on. The only cause for concern may be if it starts vibrating in your bag – but investing in a simple travel case will prevent this.
Other features – useful or gimmicks?
As we mentioned above, a timer and pressure sensor will both help with proper brushing. Some brushes signal half way through the two minutes while others signal four times. They might automatically shut off after two or three minutes so you don’t brush for too long.
You’ll also find brushes which feature:
- Different cleaning modes and vibration speeds
- Different brush head attachments (for whitening, flossing, etc.)
- Bluetooth connectivity (to connect to a mobile app)
- Phone holder
- Lock button
- LED display
- An all-in-one unit with a water flosser and toothbrush
It’s really up to you to decide whether these features are useful additions to your tooth brushing routine.
Below is a comparison table for some of the most popular models available in the UK (note that each manufacturer offers other models, too). Following this, you’ll find detailed descriptions of each of these and other brushes, along with information from user reviews.
|Oral-B SmartSeries 6000||Philips Sonicare DiamondClean Smart||Colgate ProClinical 250||FOREO ISSA Hybrid|
|Replacement head cost||£2 (in a multipack)||£5 - £8 (in a multipack)||£2.50 (in a multipack)||£17|
|Head type/technology||Rotating-oscillating with pluse||Side-to-side sonic vibration||Side-to-side sonic vibration||Sonic pulse|
|Pressure sensor||Yes - and slows brushing speed||Yes||No||No|
|Battery life (one charge)||2+ weeks||3 weeks||7-10 days||Up to 365 uses (6 months)|
|Settings||5 cleaning modes||5 modes and 3 intensities||1 cleaning speed||8 vibration speeds|
|Travel features||USB charging case||USB charging case||Travel cap||No charging dock|
|Unique features||Different heads available; Bluetooth connection to app||Different heads available; Bluetooth connection to tracking app||Charge indicator||Silicone bristles ideal for sensitive gums and resist bacteria buildup|
Review of the best electric toothbrushes in the UK
Now we’ve explained all the parts of a toothbrush and the features you might find useful, we’re going to review and compare some of the best electric toothbrushes available in the UK. You’ll find reviews of all the top brands including Oral-B and Philips, and a range of brushes to suit different budgets and needs. There is also a comparison of kids’ electric toothbrushes if you’re looking at options for the whole family.
Braun Oral-B electric toothbrush heads are small and either circular or oval in shape. This is the leading brand that uses rotating-oscillating technology, and some models also offer pulsing heads for deeper cleaning. Different types of brush head are designed for whitening, sensitive gums, and use with braces. There is even a compatible brush head made with charcoal fibre.
Oral-B offers a wide range of brushes, with basic models available for under £20. Mid-range models come with Bluetooth connectivity, and the most advanced is the Genius 9000 brush.
By connecting to the Oral-B App you can receive real-time brushing guidance to ensure you’re reaching every part of your mouth. Your dentist can even adjust your brushing plan if there are certain teeth or areas you need to focus on.
The cheapest Oral-B electric toothbrush with a pressure sensor is the Pro 2000. Part of the brush lights up if you are putting too much pressure on your teeth.
Oral-B’s more premium models don’t just light up but actually slow down the brushing speed if you are brushing too hard. You also get a handy travel case from which you can charge your smartphone as well as your toothbrush.
A Cochrane study into the best type of powered toothbrush heads found a slight reduction in plaque and gingivitis levels in the short term when using a rotating-oscillating head as opposed to a side-to-side head. Oral-B of course pounced on this data, but the study stated that the difference was small and further studies were required.
All in all, whether you want a budget powered toothbrush or a more premium one loaded with features, Oral-B probably has one to suit you.
The Philips Sonicare electric toothbrush range offers a large number of options. All Sonicare toothbrushes use patented sonic technology with a side-to-side brushing motion.
At the basic end of the scale you can pick up a no-frills Sonicare EasyClean which has one brushing mode, a timer, and not much else.
At the other end of the scale you can fork out for a DiamondClean Smart (not to be confused with plain old DiamondClean). This top-of-the-range toothbrush with three built-in sensors and Bluetooth connectivity tracks every movement of your brushing and tells you if you’ve missed a bit or you’re using the wrong technique – a bit like a personal oral hygienist.
It also comes with four different brush heads which you can use for plaque removal, whitening your teeth, gum care and tongue care. Each head has a microchip so the brush automatically knows which settings to use for each one. To charge the toothbrush, you place it in a stylish glass rather than a traditional holder. It also comes with a travel case that allows USB charging.
Many reviews of the Sonicare DiamondClean Smart state that the app has helped the user learn how to brush their teeth properly. However, some users experienced technical problems with the app – and without that, it’s really no different to much cheaper models.
In between these two models there are numerous options with varying levels of smart technology and other features. The ProtectiveClean 6100 range, for example, comes with three different cleaning modes, three intensities, a case, and a range of colours, including pink.
Colgate electric toothbrushes come in a range of price points with different features. All use a side-to-side style head for sonic cleaning.
Their most advanced brush, the ProClinical A1500, uses smart sensors to know where the brush is being held in the mouth and adjust the brushing speed and cleaning action accordingly. These settings can also be adjusted manually depending on your cleaning goals. One common gripe mentioned in user reviews is that it doesn’t have an indicator to show when the battery is running low.
At a lower price point is the Colgate ProClinical 250 toothbrush, which comes in black, white or pink. It has only one power level which delivers 25,500 sonic strokes per minute.
The 2-minute timer and 30-second pacer help you brush well, and the travel cap is handy for keeping it clean on the go. If you’re after a simple, lightweight brush then this could be a good choice. Colgate also offer a 30-day money back guarantee if you’re not happy with the product for any reason.
Swedish company FOREO is a relatively new player to the market, having been founded in 2013. The company launched its ISSA sonic toothbrush in 2014 as a revolutionary alternative to the technology that had been around for decades.
The ISSA combines soft silicone bristles with sonic pulse technology to create a clean that is effective on plaque but soft on gums. The original brush consists of 100% silicone bristles, while the newer ISSA2 hybrid version (pictured) incorporates a core of PBT polymer bristles that scrub the surface of the teeth.
The materials used in this toothbrush head are resistant to bacteria, making it a more hygienic alternative to traditional nylon heads.
Other useful features of the FOREO ISSA include:
- Waterproof design
- Built-in timer
- 8 vibration speeds
- Optional tongue cleaner attachment
- USB chargeable (no charging dock)
- 1 charge lasts up to 365 uses
- 4 vibrant colour options
- Comes with a 2-year limited warranty and 10-year quality guarantee
Reviews of this product are polarised. One the one hand, many people claim it is the best electric toothbrush for sensitive gums since the silicone material makes it almost impossible to exert too much pressure. This also helps protect tooth enamel from erosion due to over-enthusiastic brushing.
On the other hand, several people report having had reliability issues – either with the brush losing its charge or the bristles falling apart. Some people also comment that the large brush head is hard to get used to, especially if you have a small mouth.
FOREO’s range of toothbrushes are certainly not the cheapest you’ll find. However, if other toothbrushes make your gums hurt, you’re worried about bacteria building up on your toothbrush, or you just want to try something completely different, it might be worth the investment. It comes with a 2-year warranty and 10-year quality guarantee, which should cover any problems with reliability.
The following ISSA electric toothbrush review compares it to two other styles of brush. The reviewer’s conclusion is that the head is a little too large to effectively clean all her teeth. Perhaps she should try the ISSA Play, which is a smaller version of the Hybrid that’s powered by AAA batteries.
Kids’ electric toothbrushes
Tooth brushing can become less of a chore when children have the fun of an electric brush with a timer. However, most adult brushes are not suitable for children or toddlers to use because the brushing action is too abrasive for young mouths.
Instead, some manufacturers produce children’s electric toothbrushes which are specially designed to be gentler on teeth and gums.
- ISSA Mini has the same silicone bristles as the adult version but a much smaller head, making it suitable for children to use. ISSA mikro is even smaller, and suitable for use on babies as soon as their teeth start coming through. The brushes come in a range of vibrant colours.
- Oral-B Stages rechargeable brushes feature bright colours and fun characters to encourage children to brush (Disney’s Frozen or Cars, anyone?). They have a built-in timer but also work with a special timer app. Suitable for ages 3+.
- Philips Sonicare for Kids rechargeable toothbrushes are more feature-packed than the Oral-B offering but cost more. They come with customisable stickers and programs to get kids used to brushing for 2 minutes. The two different brush sizes are suitable for ages 4-6 and 7+. A more expensive version is Bluetooth connected.
- Battery-powered toothbrushes for kids are available from a number of manufacturers, including Colgate. They may be the most affordable (with more expensive models including a timer), but the toothbrush heads aren’t replaceable. When it’s time for a new one, you’ll have to buy a whole new brush.
If you have young children, find out more about the best electric toothbrush for kids and toddlers and compare different models in detail in our full article on this topic. Or, if you’d prefer to stick to a manual brush for your children for now, read about our top picks here.
Remember, you don’t need to spend a fortune to get cleaner teeth. Even with a manual toothbrush and good brushing techniques, you can keep your teeth clean and help prevent future dental problems.
However, there are many affordable electric brushes, available both online and in high street shops like Boots, for people who want that bit more motivation to brush well. Oral-B arguably offers the best value in terms of price and functionality, with a wide range of brushes to suit most budgets and needs.
The ISSA toothbrush range from FOREO brings a completely different approach with more hygienic materials, but some people have been disappointed by reliability issues.
If you have a big budget and you love technology, the Philips Sonicare DiamondClean Smart could be the one for you.
Failure to look after your teeth now may mean you need expensive dental care later in life – dentures or tooth implants, for instance. So, even a pricier toothbrush could be worth the investment if it helps you improve your oral hygiene.
1. Can you take an electric toothbrush in hand luggage?
Although very few airlines publish specific guidelines on this, the short answer is ‘yes’. You shouldn’t have any trouble at all taking your powered brush in your carry-on luggage.
It is a good idea to carry it in a travel case, though; otherwise it may accidentally switch on and make your luggage start vibrating. That is far more likely to arouse suspicion!
2. How do you use an electric toothbrush?
Don’t feel silly for wondering how to brush your teeth with an electric toothbrush. If it’s the first time you’re using one, it can feel strange. The main difference is that when you use a powered toothbrush, it does most of the brushing work for you. There is no need for a scrubbing motion; simply hold the brush gently to each tooth for a few seconds before moving along.
Here are some other tips for using an electric toothbrush effectively:
- Use the same amount of toothpaste as you would with a manual brush.
- Don’t turn the toothbrush on until it’s in your mouth – otherwise it can scatter toothpaste everywhere!
- Angle the brush at 45 degrees to the gum line so the bristles are in contact with the gum and tooth surface.
- Spend two minutes brushing, and make sure you cover every surface of each tooth (inner, outer, and biting surface) in this time. Take a little longer on the inner surface of your bottom front teeth as plaque is more likely to build up there. If your brush has a timer, it will help you spend 30 seconds on each quadrant of your mouth.
- Don’t press too hard as this may damage your gums (some brushes come with a pressure sensor to help with this).
- To complete your oral hygiene routine, floss between your teeth (see our flossing guide if you’re not sure how).
The video below shows how to brush with an Oral-B oscillating toothbrush. You can view a different video for a Philips Sonicare here, although the process is much the same. If you’re still in doubt, ask your dentist at your next checkup or read our tooth brushing guide.
Remember to brush twice a day for optimum oral health.
3. How do you clean an electric toothbrush?
You might run your toothbrush head under water when you’ve finished brushing, but this alone isn’t enough to keep it clean. Over time, you’ll notice an off-white or beige deposit building up around the handle and base. This gunk can be a combination of old toothpaste, minerals from your water, and bacteria that feed off the dirt. Yuk!
So how can you keep your electric toothbrush clean? You can begin by rinsing and wiping down the whole unit every 2-3 days. Leading brands like FOREO, Oral-B and Philips make their toothbrushes water resistant, so it’s fine to hold them under running water.
To give your brush a more thorough clean, use a cotton bud, toothpick, or even an old toothbrush to remove all the visible dirt around the base and handle. You can use a mild cleaning solution if you like.
To deep clean the head, you may soak it in a sterilising solution or use a UV sanitising unit. Some advanced models, like the Philips Sonicare FlexCare Platinum Connected, come with a UV sanitiser that kills up to 99% of bacteria on the toothbrush head.
4. Can you use an electric toothbrush with braces?
Yes, absolutely! Braces create lots of extra places for food to get stuck, and an electric toothbrush can make cleaning much easier. You’ll just need to take extra care to avoid the hard part of the head damaging your braces.
Oral-B makes special ortho brush heads designed for use with braces, as well as interspace brush heads for getting into smaller spaces. You don’t necessarily need to buy these special brush heads, though. Ask your orthodontist if you can keep using your regular toothbrush when you get your braces fitted.
To get your teeth as clean as possible while wearing braces, you can also use a water flosser. View our guide to flossing with braces for more information.
5. What’s the best electric toothbrush for receding gums?
Receding gums are often a result of over-aggressive brushing with a manual toothbrush. Using an electric toothbrush, especially one with soft bristles and a special gum care brushing mode, will help train you to brush in a way that’s gentler, but still effective.
Oral-B has several brushes with a gum care mode, designed to stimulate and massage gums. The most basic model is the Pro 3 3000, but if you go for the Genius 9000 you get a Gum Guard feature on the app which shows you exactly where you’re brushing too hard.
From Philips, the Sonicare DiamondClean has a similar gum care mode.
If you haven’t yet seen your dentist about your receding gums, especially if they are bleeding too, it’s a good idea to do so. They will check for any underlying health problems and you may need a tooth scaling or root planing treatment to help the gums grow back healthily.
6. What’s the best electric toothbrush for sensitive teeth?
Sensitive teeth are often caused by receding gums, so the question above may apply to you as well.
If you suffer from sensitive teeth, you’ll probably benefit from a toothbrush that has multiple speed modes. If you find the ‘full power’ mode too much, you can turn it down a notch. You can also buy sensitive brush heads for all the major toothbrush brands (and some premium models include one to get you started). These feature softer bristles and are specially shaped to be gentle on teeth and gums.
So when it comes to the best electric toothbrush for sensitive teeth, it’s not so much about the brush itself but about the brushing mode and toothbrush head you choose.
National Center for Biotechnology Information https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15190692 Consulted 24th April 2019.
National Center for Biotechnology Information https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3455945 Consulted 24th April 2019.
Neoscriber https://neoscriber.org/cdn/dl/081e46ee-50c0-11e7-8314-bbb41d2a6126 Consulted 24th April 2019.
University of Michigan Library. Deep Blue Is Expanding. https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/142167/jper0127.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y Consulted 24th April 2019.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science Invention ( IJPSI ) http://www.ijpsi.org/Papers/Vol6(5)/G06052938.pdf Consulted 24th April 2019.