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Crowded Teeth Causes, Problems and Treatments for Children and Adults

Amanda Napitu
Amanda Napitu
Medically reviewed by
Dr. Shane Porter
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Crowded teeth can occur at any age, resulting in teeth which are misaligned to some degree. This can affect oral health as well as appearance, so dentists will keep an eye on crowded baby teeth and may recommend crowded teeth correction in children. Cosmetic dentistry for crowded teeth is also common among adults; treatment options include veneers, Invisalign, and other types of braces.

Before you make the decision about how to go about fixing your crowded teeth, you can read this orthodontics guide we’ve put together about the options for both children and adults. We will share with you the answer to the question: What is teeth crowding? Along with the following information:

  • Causes of crowded teeth
  • Crowded teeth symptoms
  • Problems that result from crowded teeth
  • Solutions to fix your crowded teeth
  • Crowded teeth and pain
  • Before and after teeth crowding treatment
  • Answers to some common questions about overcrowding teeth

Both crowded lower teeth and upper teeth can require fixing, but treatment is often relatively simple. If cost is a concern, we'll talk you through some of the cheaper ways to fix crowded teeth, including clear aligners which let you complete your treatment completely remotely, from home.

What causes crowded teeth?

There are quite a few reasons that people encounter crowded teeth problems. Some of the most common are:

  • Thumb and pacifier sucking
  • An underdeveloped jaw bone
  • Different sized teeth
  • Irregular eruption of permanent teeth
  • Cleft lip and palate issues
  • Having extra teeth (You can read about how many teeth adults have)
  • Getting older

Most of these issues can be spotted in children; however, crowded teeth problems tend to get worse with age. As we grow older our faces are constantly changing, including the jaw. The teeth, especially the lower teeth, are likely to move around and start to become crooked, so it's common for adults to want to fix overcrowded bottom teeth.

The eruption of wisdom teeth doesn't cause overcrowding in your other teeth. Although third molars can cause many problems as they come through, research has shown that they don't exert enough force on the other teeth to alter their position. The pain people feel with wisdom teeth is because your mouth is too crowded for your wisdom teeth to grow in, but not because wisdom teeth cause other teeth to crowd. 

Do crowded teeth cause problems?

keep teeth clean
Misaligned teeth are harder to clean

If your teeth feel crowded or look out of line, this can lead to problems such as:

  • An increase in the build-up of plaque and bacteria because of difficulty cleaning between teeth
  • Accelerated tooth decay
  • Gum disease, or gingivitis
  • Unusual wear patterns on your teeth
  • Speech problems
  • Low self-esteem

These oral hygiene problems combined with the unhappiness you might feel about not having straight teeth may well lead you to seek treatment.

Ask a dentist: Is it bad to have crowded teeth?

Crowded teeth are not just a cosmetic issue. Crowded teeth create challenges for proper oral hygiene and can make it hard to brush and floss properly.  As a result, crowded teeth make it easier for plaque, tartar, and harmful bacteria to accumulate in your mouth. Eventually, this can lead to tooth decay and gum disease.

Another effect of crowded teeth may be mouth breathing. This can lead to a whole host of other problems, so find out how to stop mouth breathing.

Crowded teeth can also get worse over time. Though it varies from case to case, almost all cases of crowded teeth will worsen with age leading to more oral health complications as you get older. Poor oral hygiene can also lead to general health complications over time, like a weakened immune system and heart disease. Furthermore, straight teeth improve appearance and self-esteem.

Dr. Shane S. Porter, Premier Dentistry of Eagle

Fixing crowded teeth 

There is a range of teeth straightening options for fixing crowded top teeth, bottom teeth, or both. Which one is suitable for you will depend on the severity of the crowding and how much you are willing to spend to fix your teeth.

Medicaid and CHIP provide free treatment to fix crowded teeth with braces in children, provided the overcrowding is severe enough for the treatment to be deemed medically necessary. Where only minor crowding is present, however, private treatment may be the only option. You can read more about Medicaid eligibility criteria in our guide to Medicare and Medicaid dental insurance.

crowded lower teeth
Lower teeth crowding is especially common

Because the state-funded health insurance doesn’t cover cosmetic dentistry, crowded teeth treatment for adults will usually need to be done privately. There may be some exceptions for the most severe cases which weren't treated in childhood, for whatever reason.

Let's go through the various treatment options for teeth overcrowding in adults and children, along with the pros and cons of each. You'll find information about costs in the table a little further down.

Crowded teeth and braces

The first thing that probably comes to mind when you think about fixing crowded teeth is braces. It's true that this is the most common treatment, particularly for more severe overcrowding cases, but there are different types of braces to consider depending on various factors including severity and where your crowding is: Do you have front teeth crowding, lower teeth crowding, back teeth crowding?

Permanent braces are metal or ceramic brackets that are bonded to your teeth and connected by a metal wire. They work by putting pressure on your teeth to slowly and gently move them around your mouth. The benefit of ceramic braces is that they are clear or tooth-colored, making them much less noticeable. 

Children receiving free treatment from Medicaid or CHIP will probably only be offered metal braces; any other styles must be paid for privately. Kids may also be able to choose colors for braces.  

Does Invisalign work for crowded teeth?

fixing crowded bottom teeth
Invisible braces work well on mild cases

It's possible to use invisible braces such as the brand Invisalign for crowded teeth, too. These systems use a series of clear plastic aligners, usually changed every two weeks, to move your teeth in small increments. Treatment with Invisalign for crowded front teeth can be over reasonably quickly; the Invisalign Express system is designed for mild alignment problems and typically takes 6-8 months.

For more moderate cases of overcrowding, invisible braces treatment might take 18 months or more.

Because aligner braces are clear and are made to fit perfectly over your teeth, no matter how long you need them for, most people won’t notice them.

Fixing crowded teeth at home

If you don't have time to go to the dentist regularly or the money to pay for expensive braces treatment, you may want to try at-home aligners.

At-home aligners are invisible and cost between $1,200 and $2,400 depending on the brand and type of treatment. What's more, you don't have to take time off of work to go to the dentist—all treatment is supervised by a dentist or orthodontist remotely. The other important difference is that they are only suitable for mild and some moderate bite problems. Anyone with a severe malocclusion should visit a dentist directly.

There are many brands offering home teeth straightening treatment, but not all provide the same quality of care and customer service. Take a look at some of the top brands available and see which would be the best match for your needs:

Find the right clear aligners for you
There are so many companies offering remote teeth straightening with aligners! Take a look at our top picks and discover why we recommend these over any others.
  • Hybrid in-office and remote treatment
  • In-person visits with your orthodontist for safe, effective treatment
  • Treats even complex cases of misalignment
  • Various pricing options
Schedule your appointment!
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Discover the flexibility and effectiveness of Impress Invisible Braces, the hybrid orthodontic solution that blends in-person care with the convenience of remote appointments. Suitable for both kids and adults, Impress offers a range of treatment options designed to cater to various needs, from mild to severe cases of misalignment. With the initial consultation happening in person, you're assured of a tailored treatment plan that can address even the most complex orthodontic issues.

Impress Treatment Plans:

  • Impress Super Light ($6,999): Perfect for mild cases, this plan promises results in up to 3 months, making it the quickest route to a better smile.
  • Impress ($4,599): Designed for moderate cases, this option aims to perfect your smile within 4-10 months.
  • Impress Plus ($5,599): Tailored for moderate cases requiring a bit more time, this plan spans 11-14 months.
  • Impress Advanced ($6,999): The go-to choice for complex cases, offering comprehensive treatment over 11-24 months.
  • Teens ($4,599): Specifically designed for teenagers, this plan addresses mild cases within 4-10 months, ensuring a confident smile during those crucial years.
  • Impress Kids ($4,599): Offering orthodontic treatment for children, this plan covers a period between 8-18 months, setting the foundation for a lifetime of healthy smiles.

With flexible payment plans available, starting your journey to a perfect smile has never been easier or more accessible. Whether you're looking for a quick fix or need extensive treatment, Impress Invisible Braces provide a tailored solution that meets your needs and budget. Click below to get started!

Find out if you're a candidate!
  • Complete treatment 100% remotely
  • Amazing customer service
  • Nighttime-only option
  • $1,495 or $55/month
Get NewSmile aligners
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NewSmile aligners are made from the clearest Essix plastic and come with a daytime or nighttime-only option to suit you. For just $1,495 you'll receive everything you need to straighten and whiten your teeth – and maintain your new smile:

  • Home impression kit
  • Full aligner treatment
  • Free whitening
  • First set of retainers
  • A full refund if you're not a good fit

NewSmile goes above and beyond to provide a great experience to all their customers, beginning with a live video call to help you with your teeth impressions. Mail these back, and they'll send a 3D Treatment Preview for you to approve before going ahead.

Alternatively, click here for an extra $20 off an impression kit!
  • Complete treatment 100% remotely
  • 4-6 month average treatment time
  • Nighttime-only option
  • $949 or $77/month
Get this deal
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If you're looking for the best value aligner package, here it is! For just $895 you'll get:

  • Impression kit
  • Full aligner treatment course
  • Free teeth whitening kit
  • Your first set of retainers

In short, everything needed to straighten your teeth remotely and keep them looking great, with a full money-back guarantee if you're not a suitable candidate.

This low price doesn't mean you're compromising on quality of care, though. ALIGNERCO just choose not to put so much into marketing, and they pass on the savings to their customers. They are also known for their responsive and helpful customer care, which is important when you're doing things from home.

Plus, if you're in New York, you can visit their SmileStudio for a free consultation and help taking your impressions.

Nighttime-only aligners are also available for anyone who doesn't want to wear aligners during the day.

  • 3-4 month average treatment time
  • Assessed and planned by orthodontists
  • Includes whitening and first retainers
  • $1,999 or $70/month
Get faster treatment
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Byte's HyperByte technology uses High Frequency Vibration to help your teeth move faster and with minimal discomfort. Their average treatment time is just 3-4 months, compared to 6 months for most others.

Treatment includes your first set of retainers. You'll also get their BrightByte 3-in-1 foam to whiten your teeth, clean your aligners and freshen your breath. And their Byte-for-life guarantee means you'll get free adjustments if your teeth start to move again.

Begin by ordering an impression kit so their orthodontists can assess whether you're a good match.

Get 80% off with code SMILEBRYTE
  • Single-arch treatment option
  • Nighttime aligners available
  • Free refinements & 2 sets of retainers
  • $699 (single-arch) or $999 (dual-arch)
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Smileie's aligner treatment is not only affordable, but flexible too. You have the option of single-arch treatment for just your top or bottom teeth, as well as nighttime-only treatment. And whichever package you choose, monthly payments are available.

On top of this, Smileie offers a 100% satisfaction guarantee which includes free refinements if needed. Their aligners are made in the US and treatment takes 4-6 months on average.

Get the best discount when you purchase your aligner package up-front, including:

  • Home impression kit
  • Teeth whitening kit
  • Two sets of retainers
  • A full refund if you're not a good candidate

Packages start at $699 for single-arch treatment. Click below to check for current discounts!

If you're interested in this type of treatment but not ready to commit just yet, you can begin by just taking a free assessment to check your eligibility.

Veneers for crowded teeth

Another possible crowded teeth treatment without braces is veneers, provided the crowding and crookedness isn’t too severe. To have a veneer fitted, your dentist will shave away some of the enamel on your existing tooth and apply a composite or porcelain cover. A detailed description of the process and different options can be found in our guide to veneers.

Veneers don't actually straighten your teeth; they just make them appear straighter by covering up the crooked parts. From an esthetic perspective, this works really well, but it doesn’t solve the underlying problems that come from having crowded teeth. Your other teeth may start crowding because the pressures moving your teeth are still present.

Since veneers for crowded teeth are purely cosmetic, they won’t be covered by state-funded insurance. Also, they aren’t a suitable solution for children with crowded teeth, who will usually be directed to braces.


Another possible treatment for adults is having crowns fitted. This involves removing a lot of the tooth structure and fitting a metal or porcelain cap over the top. You can read more about dental crowns here.

Although crowns can be effective at making your top teeth or bottom teeth look straight again, they are not always the best option. Fitting a crown involves removing a lot of healthy tooth, and a lot of dentists would advise against having this procedure for purely cosmetic reasons.

If you do think this is an option you want to explore, speak with your dentist.

Summary of crowded teeth treatment options

Here a summary of the treatments and costs we've covered for fixing crowded teeth:




Treatment time


Permanent metal braces

$2,500 - $7,500

Additional cleaning and flossing while wearing

12-24 months depending on severity

Long term fix, must wear a retainer after

Permanent ceramic braces

$3,000 - $10,000

Additional cleaning and flossing while wearing

12-24 months depending on severity

Long term fix, must wear a retainer after


$250 - $750

Daily cleaning after taking out

6-12 months depending on severity

Long term fix, must continue to wear at night after movements complete

Invisalign braces

$3,500 - $8,500

Daily cleaning of aligner and teeth after each removal

6-24 months, depending on severity

Long term fix, must wear a retainer after

At-home clear aligners


Daily cleaning of aligner and teeth after each removal

6 months on average

Long term fix, must wear a retainer after

Veneers per tooth

Composite: $250 - $1,200; Porcelain: $500 - $2,500

Continue normal oral health routine

One or two dentist visits, depending on type

Cosmetic fix, lasts 5-20 years depending on type

Crowns per tooth (depending on material)

$500 - $2,000

Continue normal oral health routine

One or two dentist visits, depending on type

Significant loss of healthy teeth, lasts 5-15 years

Tooth extraction

$75 - $800

After initial healing, none

Usually one dentist visit, may be followed by braces

Permanent loss of the tooth, more room in your mouth for braces to move teeth


As we get older, it's natural for our teeth to become a bit crooked, especially in the lower jaw. Braces, clear aligners and veneers are all possible treatments if you want to restore your smile.

Invisalign is the leading brand of invisible brace, but its high cost makes it inaccessible to many people. If you're considering saving money with at-home aligners, take a look at our pages on CandidALIGNERCO reviewsNewSmileByte and Smile Direct to see which would be most suitable for you.

In children, overcrowding can be treated reasonably easily. Make sure that your child wears their retainer after treatment so that teeth crowding is less likely to re-occur as they get older.

If you decide not to correct your crowded teeth, you'll need to pay special attention to your oral hygiene in order to minimize your risk of tooth decay. A water flosser may help you keep the irregular spaces between your teeth clean.


Do I need teeth removed for crowded teeth treatments?

It depends on your personal situation. Some people are born with extra teeth – a condition called hyperdontia – and in this case, the extra teeth will need to be extracted. Sometimes dentists may want to extract normal teeth (including wisdom teeth) to make room for movement with braces.

Not all dentists approve of removing healthy teeth. Remember that you’re entitled to a second opinion if you or your child are recommended to have teeth removed as part of crowded teeth treatment. A less severe way to make space before applying braces is to file the teeth down slightly (interproximal reduction), but this isn't always an option. And an even more common way to make space is by using spacers for teeth before braces.

Here, Dr. Loh shares a case where he didn’t need to extract teeth to get great results:

How do braces work on crowded teeth and how long does it take?

Braces attach to your teeth, applying pressure on them and pulling them into the right position. Invisalign invisible braces work in much the same way – they move your teeth into the desired position.

The main difference when using Invisalign for crowded front teeth, as opposed to metal braces, is that they can’t easily be seen, and you can remove them for eating and cleaning. The timescale for treating crowded teeth with braces usually ranges from 6-24 months.

How long does Invisalign take for crowded teeth?

One of the big plus points of using Invisalign for crowded teeth is how quick treatment can be. The severity of your misalignment will determine the duration of your treatment. However, mildly crowded teeth can often be treated with Invisalign Lite, which takes just 6-8 months.

What are the best braces for treating overcrowding?

crowded top teeth
Speak to your dentist about the best braces for you

This is all going to come down to the severity of your condition. If you don't want it to be obvious that you're wearing braces, invisible aligners could be the best choice for you. If you are more concerned with cost than appearance, or if your teeth are severely crowded, metal braces may be a better option.

Another affordable option is at-home aligners, which can treat mild to moderate cases of teeth crowding.

How do I fix crowded teeth at home?

If you're wondering about homemade solutions for teeth straightening, please, don’t try! There is no way that you’ll be able to fix your teeth that way, and you'll end up damaging your teeth.

The cost of braces or other treatment might seem unmanageable, but there are ways to make dentistry more affordable, such as dental discount plans, dental tourism, and more.

You can also consider at-home clear aligners, which can cost up to 75% less than Invisalign and are effective for mild to moderate cases.

I have crowded bottom teeth, is it normal to feel pain?

When you have bottom teeth crowding, it isn't normal to feel pain. Because crowded bottom teeth can lead to tooth decay, it is likely this is what is causing your pain. Pain in your teeth – crowded or straight – is best not to be ignored; please visit a dentist for an assessment.

What will my teeth look like after treatment?

There are two ways that you can see what your teeth will look like after treatment. First, you can ask your dentist to see pictures of previous patients’ crowded teeth before and after treatment. This should give you a general idea of how your smile will improve.

Your dentist may also be able to do a computer simulation to show you what your smile will look like after treatment. If you opt for Invisalign, you will automatically receive a simulation of your smile transformation.

This video has some examples of teeth treated with Invisalign, including before and after pictures and information about treatment times:

My bottom teeth are crowding after braces treatment, why?

Braces for crowded teeth aren’t a permanent fix for every dental issue. Even if you have had braces as a teenager, it won’t always stop your teeth from becoming crowded again later. It is a part of the natural ageing process, just as your skin develops wrinkles!

However, if you notice that you have crowded teeth again soon after your braces treatment has finished, then visit your dentist. They may need to make adjustments to your retainers or offer further treatment.

Crowded Teeth Causes, Problems and Treatments for Children and Adults
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The Journal of the American Dental Association: Third Molars and Incisor Crowding: When Removal Is Unwarranted. Consulted 11th June 2019. Sparkle Dental: Extracting teeth to relieve crowding – is there an alternative? Consulted 11th June 2019.